"Big" and "small" aviation city development complement each other

“大”、“小”航空城发展相得益彰

· In combination with the actual situation of domestic airports, the aviation city should be divided into two areas within the airport's overall planning area (“small aviation city”) and outside (“big aviation city”), and first committed to “small aviation city”, especially the airport. Development of existing stock land.

· China is currently in a period of rapid development of high-speed railway and civil aviation transportation. Relevant departments should seize the opportunity to study and plan the connection between inter-city and national high-speed railway networks and large airports. At the same time, it is necessary to integrate the multi-modal ground transportation center (GTC) and directly incorporate it into the “small aviation city” commercial development plan to make the function of the ground transportation center more diversified.

· The terminal building is the core of the space and function of the aviation city, like the central square of a city. The commercial complex project adjacent to the terminal is similar to the suburban Central Business District (CBD). Therefore, in front of the large airport terminal, there are good conditions for the development of “urban complex”.

The emerging aviation city model is the expansion direction of large and medium-sized airports in the 21st century and an important strategic measure for the transformation of regional economic development. In combination with the actual situation of the domestic airport, the aviation city should be divided into two areas, the inner and outer areas of the airport's overall planning area (the red line of land acquisition). The former can be called “small aviation city” in a popular way, and is located 1-3 kilometers around the core area of ​​the airport. Scope, the land is mostly allocated land or airport development reserve; the latter can be called "big aviation city", focusing on the adjacent areas of the airport, the radiation area and the airport traffic corridor, mostly commercial land or undeveloped agricultural land, Controlled by the local government. The development of "big" and "small" aviation cities, the author believes that the following issues should be noted in order to achieve mutually beneficial results.

What should be paid attention to in the development of "small aviation city"?

Focusing on the big picture, we will start small and work on the “small aviation city”, especially the development of the existing stock of the airport.

Based on the opinions of experts at home and abroad, the development history of the aviation city can be summarized as follows: the aviation city originates from a commercial diversified terminal building, starting with the “small aviation city” within the airport boundary and transitioning to the “airport corridor”. Development will eventually form the form of “big aviation city” (airport metropolitan area). The practice of offshore aviation city development is generally the first development of the core area of ​​the airport, and then its function spread and land spillover, gradually expanding to the adjacent and peripheral areas of the airport. On the one hand, the development of some aviation cities in China has the phenomenon that the plan is “big and empty” and the airport authorities cannot control and implement it. On the other hand, there are a lot of land around the airport that is idle and wasted, and things that can be done and done are delayed. Moving problem. To this end, the airport authorities in the development of the aviation city, not only from the big point of view, the overall planning of the long-term development of the aviation city, but also to start small, based on the current, committed to the development of "small aviation city", especially Turn the existing idle land of the airport into waste.

Innovate planning and make full use of the land resources in front of the terminal to actively research and develop the air-conditioned “urban complex”.

Large airport staff often exceed 50,000 people, plus thousands of passengers and pick-up personnel every day, it can be said that the airport's consumption population exceeds some medium-sized cities. The terminal building as a gathering place for people is the core of the space and function of the aviation city, like the central square of a city. Commercial complex projects such as offices, hotels, retail, and exhibitions are often adjacent to the terminal building, similar to the suburban central business district (CBD). Therefore, in front of the large airport terminal, there are good conditions for the development of “urban complex”. The city complex is derived from the English HOPSCA. It is a complex real estate development model integrating Hotel, Office, Park, Shopping, Convention and Apartment. Is an important function section in the city. For example, Schiphol, Frankfurt, Hong Kong and other well-known airports have planned office, hotel, business center and other complex projects in the area adjacent to the terminal building, and seamlessly connected with the terminal through air corridors, pedestrian bridges, dedicated trails, etc. Connect. The Sheraton Schiphol Airport and the World Trade Center (WTC) can be reached by a 5-minute walk from the terminal entrance and exit hall through the air corridor. The airport conference service launched by WTC facilitates the meeting of relevant people in different locations and with close travel.

Due to the display of images, traditional customs and other factors, the front of the domestic airport terminal is mostly the “one horse Pingchuan” square (and parking lot), while the commercial places such as hotels and offices are often far away from the terminal building, and are “walking too far and driving. The dilemma of “too close” has affected the mining of potential business value in the core area of ​​the airport. To solve this problem, we must start with the reform of the domestic airport related planning concept, that is, the large and medium-sized airports should adopt the "aviation city" model to plan or construct or optimize the transformation of the terminal building and the ground area, from a simple "image first" to a commercial The harmonization of value, passenger convenience and airport image, and active research and development of the airport-type "urban complex."

Grasp the law, tap the demand, and select the business project combination and development method.

Through the analysis of more than 10 aviation city case data at home and abroad, the relevant organizations have summarized the most common commercial facilities of “Small Aviation City”, including restaurants, restaurants and other food services with local characteristics; international brands and licensed retail stores; banks And currency exchange; duty-free shops; hotels and accommodation; office buildings; parking lots (floors); conference and exhibition centers; cultural and recreational facilities such as museums, art galleries and cinemas; leisure and recreational venues such as golf courses, racecourses and Entertainment parks, etc.; personal and family services such as fitness facilities, spas and child care for airport staff and passengers; medical and health care facilities; factory outlets for airline passengers and local residents; auction, exchange and trade complexes, Such as car city, fashion and durable goods comparison procurement center; aviation-related industries, such as aircraft maintenance, repair; logistics and distribution, such as cold chain logistics, value-added logistics (labeling, testing and assembly, etc.); bonded areas, special economic zones and Bonded warehouses, etc.

Of course, each airport has a different situation, and the combination of commercial facilities and business formats should be adjusted according to actual and potential market needs. At the same time, different formats should adopt different development methods. For example, the French Paris Airport Group (ADP) recently launched an aviation city development project called “Oli Star” at Paris Orly Airport, with a total construction scale of 1 million square meters and a phase of 160,000 square meters. ADP combines its own familiarity with the project format and the project risk. The hotel land is planned to adopt the investment promotion method. The retail is planned to cooperate with professional organizations to develop. The business office is planned to be leased to the airline after self-construction.

Some domestic aviation city developments, to varying degrees, there are problems such as unreasonable layout of project formats, poor development mode, unprofessional development, and high construction costs, resulting in losses in the profitable projects. To this end, domestic airports in the implementation of aviation city development, not only to study the general rules of the aviation city commercial project layout, but also to fully integrate the specific market needs to determine the project format and layout, must not blindly imitate. At the same time, according to the familiarity and risk, the airport authorities should adopt different development methods for different formats. Among them, the business areas familiar to them (such as airport supporting facilities, business offices, etc.) can adopt self-built self-operated methods; In the less familiar business areas, cooperative development methods can be adopted to introduce professional developers; for risky projects, BOT (construction-operation-transfer), BTO (construction-transfer-operation), BLT (construction- Lease-transfer) or order-based development to effectively avoid risks. Of course, in the external cooperation, we must pay special attention to the credit status of the partners and prevent the risk of cooperation.

Focus on air and rail transport, establish an integrated transportation hub, and plan the commercial project of the Airport Ground Transportation Center (GTC).

The effective connection of ground transportation, especially the subway, light rail and high-speed railway network, will bring new development opportunities to the development of aviation city. The airport ground transportation center gathers a large number of consumer traffic, and the convenience brought by multi-modal transportation will attract more companies and businesses to enter the airport. At Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Paris airports, you can connect directly to the European high-speed rail network, and next to the terminal is the train station. The improvement of ground transportation not only promoted the development of the airport area, but also stimulated the development along the airport corridor. For example, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol took the lead in transforming the square in front of the terminal into the Schiphol Airport Commercial Plaza (PLAZA), connecting the airport to the train station and connecting the hotel, office building, and large parking lot with the PLAZA bridge. The prototype of the aviation city.

According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 30 airport track lines planned, under construction or under construction in China, but there are very few examples of introducing high-speed rail into airports. In comparison, the connection between high-speed rail and hub airports has become the highest form of air-rail combined transport. From a macroscopic point of view, air-rail combined transport is a win-win move between civil aviation and railways. Which large airport first achieves a competitive advantage. China is currently in a period of rapid development of high-speed railway and civil aviation transportation. Relevant departments should seize the opportunity to study the connection between planned inter-city and national high-speed railway networks and large airports. Airports with conditions should focus on planning and constructing suburban integrated transportation hubs with both external transportation and urban transportation. The Shanghai Hongqiao Integrated Transportation Hub has set a precedent in this regard. For airports that do not have an integrated transportation hub for the time being, efforts should be made to achieve seamless connection between the airport and the high-speed rail and subway network. At the same time, the airport authorities should consider the location of the airport rail transit station from the perspectives of investment, operational efficiency and commercial value, and try to adopt the layout of the adjacent terminal or central station area, and the multi-modal ground transportation center (GTC). The integration is directly incorporated into the “small aviation city” commercial development plan, which makes the functions of the ground transportation center more diversified.

Suggestions on the development of "big aviation city"

The “big aviation city” outside the airport master plan generally refers to the area of ​​15 kilometers around the airport and more than 30 kilometers (half hour drive) along the airport corridor. This area, whether it is overall planning, land occupation, comprehensive coordination, tax incentives, etc., is not something that enterprises can accomplish. Therefore, the development of “big aviation city” in this region must be led by the local government, and the airport authorities should strive to lead the planning and participate in the construction. Specifically, there are the following suggestions:

Make full use of the airport's professional advantages and get the land in the potential gold value area in advance.

The participation of airport authorities in the development of aviation cities has a unique competitive advantage. Specifically, the first is the market resources brought by the airport's people flow, logistics and staff; the second is that the airport authorities are relatively familiar with the airport real estate and can grasp the relevant information resources in advance; the third is the government's development of the airport and the economic development of the airport. The various policies support; Fourth, the airport authorities have the right to influence the planning and construction of the surrounding areas according to law. In the outskirts of the airport, most of the airports missed the opportunity to acquire land in the past few years. However, the real estate company that the airport belongs to should focus on the adjacent areas of the airport and choose the potential gold value area to get the land in advance. Especially those airports where the development of land resources is lacking within the boundary. For Aviation City, the location law in the famous law of commercial property value has been replaced by the “can be reached” rule. The time and cost (not distance) between people and goods to and from the airport becomes a key factor in the value of real estate development. In other words, the stronger the reachability, the higher the land value.

Improve the construction of living facilities and enhance the comprehensive service functions of the aviation city.

Comfortable living and working environment, perfect functional facilities are important factors to attract enterprises and talents. The government is obliged to assist in providing basic community functions such as housing, education, health care and support services in order to maintain local quality of life and maintain social stability. The aviation city will generally open up residential areas to provide convenience for the staff of the airport and park institutions. For example, in the planning and construction of various parks, Amsterdam Aviation City fully considers the matching relationship between industrial land, commercial land and living service facilities to meet the production and living needs of the employees and local residents.

The construction of ancillary service facilities is relatively lagging behind, there are few environmental construction considerations, and the lack of modern service organizations makes it difficult to provide perfect services for enterprises and talents. It is a common problem encountered in the development of domestic aviation cities. To this end, the development of aviation city should pay attention to the reasonable combination of various functional facilities, and create an aviation new city with reasonable spatial layout, complete supporting facilities and ecologically livable. First, it is necessary to rationally plan the scale of land use for airport life support. Second, rationally plan the layout of the land used for airport life. In combination with the special requirements of the age, income and airport operation security, the staff residential area should be settled in different areas. The shift (single) dormitory and public rental housing can be considered for planning and construction on the own land of the airport area; commercial housing can be considered in the airport transportation corridor. The construction of land along the line, the towns around the airport or the areas with good natural environment, it is best to take into account the dual accessibility of the city center and the airport in the specific traffic location. Third, airport real estate enterprises should actively participate in the construction of aviation new cities. The Aviation City area is suitable for the development of multi-storey residential buildings and high-end villas. The former is mainly to solve the problem of the airport's employment population, and the latter is mainly to attract high-income groups with frequent flights. The residential area of ​​the aviation city should be planned according to the principle of “new urbanism”, paying attention to humanization and neighborhood feeling, emphasizing “walkable” in the community and “commutable commuting” outside the community (providing convenient transportation to the airport and urban areas). With education, medical care, shopping, entertainment, leisure and other functions, residents can afford to live and stay.

Innovate the development model and coordinate the interests of relevant entities.

In order to effectively utilize the resources inside and outside the airport and fully mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of all relevant entities, the construction of the aviation city outside the airport needs an innovative development model to achieve the common development of different stakeholders in the region. For example, during the planning and construction process, Amsterdam Aviation City led the specific planning and construction of the aviation city by establishing the Schiphol Regional Development Corporation (SADC), which was attended by the central government, local governments and airports, thus avoiding conflicts between different stakeholders. At present, due to the different affiliation, domestic airports, local governments and related parties have certain differences in their own development and overall regional economic planning. There is no mechanism and situation for cooperation and win-win, which affects and restricts the aviation city to a certain extent. development of. Therefore, the domestic aviation city and the airport economic zone should strengthen the development model innovation, implement the unified planning of the government or leading institutions, and coordinate the development of many professional organizations to form a new mechanism for coordinated development of the airport and surrounding areas to ensure that the airport and surrounding areas are Orderly operation of spatial planning, industrial layout, and policy coordination. Local governments should give strong support to the airport on the construction of convenient transportation and land use, and encourage the airport to invest funds in the development and construction of the airport industry park to achieve diversification and socialization of investment entities. The airport authorities should strengthen communication and reporting to local governments when making plans to ensure that the goals of both parties are consistent. The development and construction of industrial parks directly related to airport functions should be controlled by the airport authorities.

Introduce a series of preferential policies to attract well-known domestic and foreign companies to settle in.

The development of the aviation city needs the support of the airport industry; and the development of the airport industry needs to attract well-known domestic and foreign enterprises to settle in, especially the government needs to provide preferential policies and quality services. For example, in order to attract foreign logistics companies to settle in, the South Korean government has introduced a series of supporting policies, including foreign-invested enterprises stationed in the park. According to different industries and investment scales, they can enjoy international tax, local tax, land use fees, etc. within the next 5-7 years. Preferential policies; domestic and foreign goods entering the park can enjoy preferential treatment such as exemption from tariffs and liquor taxes; the government allows enterprises to directly construct logistics and manufacturing facilities, which can operate for up to 50 years. Under the guidance of the government, the Incheon Airport Logistics Park has attracted a large number of international transit goods from China. International express companies such as DHL and Pan-Korean Logistics or international trading companies have selected the Airport Logistics Park as an intercontinental hub for the Asian region, Incheon Airport. It has gradually established its important position in the Northeast Asian aviation hub.

To some extent, the development of the airport industry in some areas of China has problems such as the convergence of orientation, the lack of direct orientation of the industry, and the absence of an industrial chain. Therefore, all parties concerned should work together to promote the development strategy of aviation city development and airport industry to a regional development strategy at the industry, provinces and cities, and even at the national level, and strive for greater government support. At the same time, special land policies, taxation (including tariffs) policies and talent introduction policies will be implemented in the region, and preferential policies suitable for the development of aviation-oriented industries will be introduced, and a good investment environment will be created through tax incentives and financial subsidies. Leading enterprises, while doing a good job in core industries, encourage the development of high-tech industries and the establishment of scientific research institutions, and focus on developing industrial chains from both horizontal and vertical perspectives. In addition, it is necessary to further improve the operational efficiency of the airport, improve the 24-hour fast customs clearance service, and strive for policy support such as the airport-type comprehensive bonded zone. (The author is the deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Capital Airport Real Estate Group Co., Ltd.)

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Schiphol Airport Aviation City

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Airport is a model for the construction of the world aviation city. Schiphol Airport Group has been committed to the creation and development of the airport and its surrounding areas into an aviation metropolitan area. After more than 20 years of development, the current Schiphol Airport Aviation City has become a hub for aviation hubs, logistics centers, regional economic centers and international trade centers. Complex. In 2009, the group's real estate business accounted for 12% of total revenue, and profits accounted for 32%.

Frankfurt Airport City

One of the current and future core development strategies of Frankfurt Airport Management Group is to upgrade the real estate positioning of “Frankfurt Airport” to “Frankfurt Airport City” and propose three changes: First, the airport positioning is changed from “hub airport” to “ "Airline City", the second is that the service target is changed from "passenger, guest, employee" to "customer, consumer". Third, the construction concept is changed from "space and infrastructure" to "real estate management and development opportunity." In the 2015 plan, the group focused on real estate and aviation city business as a profit growth pole.

Denver Airport Aviation City

The development model of the airport city of Denver Airport in the United States is one of the typical cases of unified government planning and leap-forward development. When the United States built the airport in the early years, the concept was relatively conservative. The airport main building and the planned geographical location were simply designed from the modernization and humanization of the airport facilities. However, the development of the aviation city lacked a long-term perspective and could not fully exert the driving role of the airport. From the beginning of the construction of the airport, the Denver government has designed according to the growth concept that drives the development of the surrounding area. After years of development, the airport's driving role has become increasingly obvious. At present, 25% of the annual economic growth in Denver City occurs in the vicinity of the airport, attracting a large number of employed people, and the constant involvement of real estate developers has also caused the price of medium and high-end housing to rise rapidly.

Aviation City's success conditions

First, national or regional hub airports, passenger traffic exceeds 10 million passengers per year.

Second, there is a certain industry gathering base around the airport.

Third, it has convenient ground transportation and business facilities.

Fourth, the cities relying on the city are above the regional level, and are experiencing rapid urbanization.

The fifth is the policy support and coordination of the local government.

In addition, some small-scale airports, but close to the central city, or suburban airports are not far from the airport, but also have the innate regional advantages of developing aviation cities.

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